Vin check related Glossary.
Assembled — When a vehicle has been adjusted or built from a kit.
Assignment — Transfer of property claim, right or interests from one person or entity to another.
Auction Disclosures or Announcements — Dealers and institutions (i.e. fleet companies, rental car companies, and manufacturers) sell millions of cars at auction each year. Sellers often provide disclosures about a vehicle’s damage, mileage, or repair history. These disclosures are made available to potential buyers in pre-sale lists and in auction announcements.
Auctions are made available to potential buyers in pre-sale lists.
Auto Auction — Auto auctions provide CARFAX with odometer readings for vehicles bought and sold at auction. Approximately 31% of used cars sold at dealerships are purchased at auto auctions.
An event in order to purchased used cars.
Automotive Recycler — Vehicles sold at an automotive recycler is often totaled by insurance companies. The majority of these vehicles are 1) rebuilt and sold as a complete vehicle, 2) dismantled and sold for parts, or 3) scrapped and sold as metal. On occasion, they also handle vehicles with no specific damage history.
Vehicles that are rebuilt and sold complete, dismantled and sold per parts, scrapped and sold as metals.
Bond Released — monetary bond that was required by a government agency was returned to the owner or importer.
Monetary bond required by a government agency.
Bonded Title — A title is bonded when the owner has no proof of ownership during the titling process. The bond remains in effect for three years or until the vehicle is no longer registered in the state.
Title from which an owner has no proof of ownership during the titling process which takes effect for 3 years or until the vehicle is no longer registered in the state.
Bonded — the vehicle required posting of a bond in order to register or place a title on the vehicle.
This is required in order to register a vehicle.
Broken Odometer — Odometer no longer records distance driven.
Odometer no longer records distance driven.
Built to Non U.S. Standards — Vehicle previously registered or titled outside of the U.S. and may not comply with U.S. safety and emissions standards.
Vehicle used for cars that was not registered or outside U.S and does not comply with U.S safety and emission standards.
Canadian Total Loss Vehicle — an insurance company declares a vehicle a total loss if the estimated repair cost, plus the salvage value of the damaged vehicle, exceeds the cash value of the vehicle before it was damaged. A Canadian vehicle declared a total loss may require a technical inspection before it can return to the road.
A vehicle used if was found out after inspection that the estimated repair cost, plus the salvage value exceeds the cash value before it was damaged.
Certified Pre-Owned Vehicle — many manufacturers have certified pre-owned programs that promote used vehicles that meet high standards defined by the manufacturer. Each program has a different certification process.
A vehicle used to certify that it meets the high standard quality.
Collision Repair Facility — a collision repair facility specializes in repairing vehicle damage caused by accidents and other incidents. A vehicle inspection completed by your dealer or a professional inspector is recommended.
Specializes in repairing vehicles damaged caused by accidents and other fortuitous events.
Commercial — the vehicle was registered and used for business purposes (such as a delivery truck, taxi or car rental).
Registered and used for business purpose at one point in time.
Corrected Title — The State DMV has issued a corrected title for the vehicle.
Title issued by the state DMV.
Crash Test — Vehicles used in crash tests are supposed to be sold as junk vehicles. Institutions that test these vehicles disclose this information to CARFAX to help ensure they do not end up back on the road.
A test used for shipwreck vehicles which are considered to be sold as junk vehicles.
Curb stoning — a curbstone is a person who purchases vehicles at volumes that require a dealer license and then poses as a private seller to sell to unsuspecting buyers for a large profit. Curb stoning is illegal in most States. CARFAX analyzes a vehicle’s history for specific events to determine if a vehicle is potentially at risk for curb stoning. For instance, a vehicle that has been sold at auction but not issued a new title during a given period of time. Please see the CARFAX Curbstoning Tips for other ways to identify a potential curbstoner.
An illegal process used to purchase vehicles in volumes and sell to unsuspecting buyers in large scale.
Damage Disclosure — When the owner discloses to a DMV or other CARFAX source that the vehicle sustained damage. The extent of damage can range from minor to severe. CARFAX recommends you have this vehicle inspected.
Categorize the damaged of a vehicle from minor to severe.
Damaged — The vehicle has sustained damage to the body and/or mechanical components.
A vehicle has damaged in the body or mechanical parts.
Date Reported — Refers to the date when the transaction occurred.
The report date.
Dealer Plates — The vehicle has a license plate registered to an auto dealer.
A License plate registered to a dealer.
Dealer Service Company — Dealer Service Companies assist auto dealers in managing their inventories. These companies offer data services in the areas of mass marketing, maintenance notification, unit labeling and advertising. Not all dealer service companies report information to CARFAX.
Assists auto dealers to manage their inventories and offers data services such as mass marketing, maintenance, unit labeling and advertising.
Dismantled Title — The vehicle sustained major damage to one or more major component parts and the cost of repairing the vehicle for safe operation exceeds its fair market value. When a Dismantled title is issued, the vehicle may be used only for parts or scrap metal. It cannot be re-titled or returned to the road.
A vehicle was considered scrap metal or used only for parts.
Driver Education — The vehicle has been used to train individuals to develop driving skills.
Used as a training vehicle for developing skills.
Duplicate Title — The vehicle had a duplicate title issued by the DMV.
Duplicate title issued by the DMV.
Emission/Safety Inspection — An approved emission testing station has inspected the vehicle to measure the amount of pollutants the vehicle emits into the environment.
This certifies that a vehicle meets the standard environmental procedures.
Exceeds Mechanical Limits — The actual mileage/kilometers are greater than the odometer allows to be recorded.
Surpass the maximum allowable odometer reading.
Excluded – Vehicle is generally exempt from normal/mandatory odometer law.
Exemption from the normal/mandatory odometer law.
Exempt — Vehicle is generally exempt from normal/mandatory odometer law.
Exemption from normal/mandatory odometer law.
Failed Emissions Inspection — The emissions check performed during a vehicle inspection indicated the vehicle was emitting more than allowable emissions standards and/or had missing or modified parts. Repeated failed emissions records can indicate engine problems and CARFAX recommends you have the vehicle inspected.
A vehicle failed to meet the standard allowable emissions.
Failed Safety Inspection — The vehicle failed to pass a state safety inspection.
Fail to pass a State Safety Inspection.
Fire Damage — The vehicle has sustained damage due to a fire.
Damaged cause by fire.
First Owner — When the first owner(s) obtains a title from a Department of Motor Vehicles as proof of ownership. \
Proof of ownership or titled issued by the DMV.
Fleet, Rental and/or Lease Use — The vehicle has been reported as used as a fleet, rental and/or lease vehicle.
A Vehicle is used as fleet, rental or lease.
Fleet Vehicle — Vehicle was registered or sold to a company that manages vehicle fleets.
Vehicle was registered or sold to company.
Flood Damage Title — States issue flood titles when a vehicle has been in a flood or has received extensive water damage.
A vehicle has extensive water damage.
Government Use — The vehicle was used by a government agency.
A vehicle is for government use.
Grey Market — The vehicle was imported into the country and may not meet U.S. safety and/or environmental standards.
A vehicle was imported and may not meet the U.S. safety and/or environmental standards
Gross Polluter — A Gross Polluter is a vehicle that fails an emissions inspection with below-standard scores. These vehicles can pollute as much as 18 times more than a vehicle that passes an emissions inspection. It is illegal to drive or sell a gross polluting vehicle in California, and it cannot be registered with the DMV. CARFAX recommends checking the latest Vehicle Inspection Report to confirm the proper repairs have been completed before purchasing.
A vehicle is does not meet the emission environmental standards.
Gross Weight Exemption — The vehicle has been exempted from the odometer law after exceeding a certain gross weight.
A vehicle is found out to surpass a certain gross weight and was exempted from the Odometer law.
Hail Damage — The vehicle was damaged significantly by hail.
Vehicle was damaged by hail.
High-speed Crash Test Vehicle — Vehicle was subjected to a crash test at relatively high speeds and vehicle could have sustained significant damage.
A vehicle passes sustained significant damage.
Information Source — CARFAX receives data from thousands of data sources. The information source refers to the source or provider of the vehicle history information reported in the Vehicle History Report.
This provides the vehicle history information.
Inspections — Many states or counties require annual or biennial emissions and/or safety inspections. Odometer readings are collected at the time of the inspection.
A vehicle requires annual or biennial biennial emissions and/or safety inspections.
Insurance or Probable Total Loss — This vehicle was reported an insurance or probable total loss due to an accident or theft.
A vehicle was reported a probable total loss due to theft or accident.
Junk Title — A Junk Title is issued on a vehicle damaged to the extent that the cost of repairing the vehicle exceeds ~ 75% of its pre-damage value. This damage threshold may vary by state. The majority of states use this title to indicate that a vehicle is not road worthy and cannot be titled again. Some states treat Junk titles the same as Salvage.
Titled issued on a damaged vehicle that exceeds cost of repairing by 75% from its pre-damaged value.
Junk — The vehicle’s parts have been salvaged for reuse and the remainder of the vehicle has been destroyed or scrapped. This vehicle has been declared a total loss, is not road worthy and should not be titled again for use on the road.
The vehicle was scrapped, destroyed or salvaged for re-use.
Lease — When someone leases a car from a dealer, the dealer actually sells the vehicle to a leasing company. The leasing company then collects payments for the vehicle from the new owner for 24, 36, 48 or more months. A leasing company can be an independent car dealer or a car manufacturer.
Rental of a vehicle which ranges payment terms from 24.36,48 or more months.
Lemon — If after a reasonable amount of attempts the authorized dealer is unable to conform a new vehicle to any of its applicable express warranties, the manufacturer shall either provide its customer with a new vehicle of a like model line, if available, or otherwise comparable vehicle as a replacement, or accept the return of the vehicle from its customer and refund to its customer the purchase price paid for the vehicle less a reasonable allowance for use of the vehicle. Lemon laws vary in the states that have enacted them. Lemon laws may not exist in all states.
This may not exists in all states. This means the owner can refund the purchased price paid for the vehicle at a reasonable cause.
Lien — A lien is a legal right to the vehicle by a third party to ensure the repayment of a debt or other financial obligation. This often occurs due to an auto loan. Other types of liens include mechanic’s liens and child support liens. If you are buying, check with the seller to make sure the lien has been resolved.
Livery Use — The vehicle has been used “for hire” to transport people.
Vehicle is used “for hire” to transport people.
Loan/Lien — A loan/lien is the legal right to take and hold or sell the vehicle of a debtor as security or payment for a debt. Normally, a vehicle will have a lien due to a loan or unpaid repair bill against the vehicle. Check with the seller to ensure that the lien has been satisfied.
The legal right to hold take or sell the vehicle due to unpaid repair bill or loan of the debtor…
Major Damage Incident — The vehicle has had a major damage incident reported by an independent source.
Vehicle was found out to have a severe damage.
Major Parts Removed — When a vehicle has three or more major parts removed by an automotive recycler.
3 or more major parts of a vehicle are removed.
Manufacturer Buyback — The manufacturer has repurchased the vehicle.
Re-purchased the vehicle.
Manufacturer Recall — Automobile manufacturers issue recall notices to inform owners of car defects that have come to the manufacturer’s attention. Recalls also suggest improvements that can be made to improve the safety of a particular vehicle. Most manufacturer recalls can be repaired at no cost to you.
Inform owners of car defects and notice improvement of Safety for a particular Vehicle at no cost.
Manufacturer Vehicle — Manufacturer vehicles are vehicles put up for sale by the manufacturer. These vehicles are typically only available to dealers at special auctions. These vehicles have generally been registered as lease or rental vehicles
A registered vehicle put up for sale by the manufacturer.
Motor Change — The vehicle has had its original motor replaced.
Engine was replaced.
Municipal Use — The vehicle was used or owned by a federal, state or local government agency.
Vehicle was for government use.
NHTSA Crash Test Vehicle — The vehicle was used for NHTSA crash testing to measure the safety of the vehicle and its passengers.
Test to measure the safety of the vehicle and its passengers.
New Owner Reported — When a vehicle is sold to a new owner, the Title must be transferred to the new owner(s) at a Department of Motor Vehicles.
A vehicles title must be transferred to the New Owner.
Non-Profit — Vehicle was registered by a “not for profit” agency or business.
A vehicle is registered to a non-profit agency or business.
Non Compliance — The vehicle does not meet governmental vehicle requirements revolving around safety and/or environmental standards.
A vehicle does not meet the safety and/or environmental standards.
OCRA — The Oficina Coordinadora De Riesgos Asegurados S.C. (OCRA) is a Mexican not-for-profit corporation organized to detect, investigate and deter vehicle theft and insurance fraud for the good of its members and the public. It manages and controls databases on stolen vehicles and exported vehicles for the benefit of the insurance industry, law enforcement agencies and the public. OCRA obtains vehicle information entirely from other sources and relies on those sources for the accuracy and reliability of this information. Therefore, OCRA accepts no responsibility or liability for any error or omission in this report. OCRA is proud to assist CARFAX customers in their efforts to better understand a vehicle’s history.
A non-profit corporation that manages and control data based in terms of the vehicle’s history and assists owners.
Odometer Problem — The vehicle has odometer-related problems. These may include discrepancies such as not actual miles, a broken odometer, exceeding a vehicle’s mechanical limits, a mileage discrepancy, or suspect miles.
Vehicle has discrepancies due to broken odometer, no actual distance measurement, surpass mechanical limits etc.
Odometer Rollback — If a more recent odometer reading is less than an older reading, then the odometer may have been tampered with and “rolled back.” CARFAX analyzes the mileage history and the sources of this information to indicate a potential odometer rollback.
A vehicle has a tampered odometer when the recent reading is less than the older readings.
Odometer Rollover — Older vehicles often have 5-digit odometers that roll over to zero when the mileage exceeds 99,999.
When a vehicle 5 digit odometer mileage exceeds 99,999 and goes back to 0.
Passed Emission Inspection — The vehicle passed a required state emission inspection.
A vehicle passes the State emission Inspection.
Passed Safety Inspection — The vehicle passed a required state safety inspection.
A vehicle passes the State safety inspection.
Personal Use — Vehicle was registered by the owner for private or personal use.
A vehicle is for private or personal use.
Police Use — The vehicle was reported as previously used by a police agency.
A vehicle is use for police agency.
Rebuilt/Rebuildable — The vehicle was a salvaged vehicle that was refurbished with new or used parts. An affidavit of repair from the rebuilder or individual making the repairs, stating what repairs were made to the vehicle and that the vehicle is now rebuilt and road operable, may be required to obtain a rebuilt/rebuildable title. These vehicles must also pass a state safety inspection before being allowed back on the road.
Title used for salvaged vehicle that was refurbished with new or used parts and passes a state safety inspection standard.
Reconditioned — Repair or renovation has restored the vehicle.
A vehicle is restored through repairs or renovations.
Reconstructed — Reconstructed vehicles lose all identity as to make and model and do not carry the original make, year, and VIN. They usually have been reconstructed from various vehicles.
A Vehicle that has no identification such as not carrying the original date it was made and VIN.
Recycled — Vehicle was reported as scrapped or major components removed by a recycling facility.
A vehicle is considered scrapped or any removal of its major components.
Registration/Renewal — The vehicle had a registration renewal event reported by a state DMV.
A vehicle has a Registration/Renewal event.
Relocation — When a vehicle is moved from one state to another with no change of ownership.
A vehicle is move from one state to another without change of ownership.
Remanufactured — A vehicle that has been constructed specifically by a licensed remanufacturer and consists of any used or reconditioned integral parts, including, but not limited to, frame, engine, transmission, axles, brakes, or suspension. This does not generally include repaired or restored vehicles, or those modified by replacing or adding parts or accessories.
Rental — Vehicle was registered by a rental agency.
Vehicle was registered by a rental agency.
Repossessed — The creditors or lessors have invoked legal authority to seize the vehicle due to default on a loan or lease.
A vehicle was seizing due to a default on a loan or lease.
Safety Inspection — A state safety office has inspected the vehicle.
A vehicle was inspected.
Salvage Correction from DMV — The state has corrected a title that was previously branded as “salvage.”
A vehicle was branded as “salvage” and was corrected.
Salvaged — A salvage vehicle is a vehicle that has been wrecked or damaged beyond repair; declared a total loss by the insurer; or declared a total loss by reason of theft. When an insurance company as a result of a total loss settlement acquires a vehicle, the insurance company must apply for a Salvage Certificate. If the owner retains possession of a salvage vehicle, the owner must obtain a Salvage Certificate before receiving a total loss statement from the insurance company.
A vehicle was damaged or wrecked beyond repair or declared a total loss due to theft.
Scrapped/Destroyed — The vehicle has been reclaimed for its metal content.
Seize of vehicles metal content.
Scrapped — Vehicles that have been dismantled and/or crushed and should not return to the road.
A vehicle was crushed, dismantle or tear down.
Service Plan Company — Service Plan Companies market extended warranty plans to buyers of both new and used cars as mechanical breakdown insurance. Information is collected from service plan companies when they issue contracts and when they pay repair claims. Not all service plan companies report information to CARFAX.
This serves as a warranty plans to buyers of both new and used cars as mechanical breakdown insurance.
Special Constructed — The vehicle was altered from the manufacturer’s original design.
A vehicle is modified from its original design.
State Government — The state government has used the vehicle.
A vehicle is use for State government.
Stolen Vehicle — A vehicle is reported stolen when it is reported to a state DMV or an insurance company as missing. It is important to verify the status of a stolen vehicle with NICB before purchase to protect yourself. You could be charged with buying a stolen vehicle, especially if it appears that you may have had knowledge that the vehicle was stolen. You may also lose the vehicle without compensation for the purchase price. You can contact NICB to verify a vehicle’s stolen status by calling 800-447-6282 x 2 or by completing the NICB web form.
A vehicle is reported as missing or stolen.
Storm Area Registration/Title — Storm registration/title refers to information reported to us that a vehicle was registered or titled prior to the storm event in FEMA designated storm damaged area. Storm events can include hurricanes, floods and other natural disasters. While a vehicle may have been reported as titled or registered in an affected area, it may not have been damaged by the storm, or it may have been moved to safety during the storm. We recommend a thorough professional inspection of the vehicle to confirm no storm damage.
Title when a vehicle is in a storm damaged area.
Structural / Frame Damage — In most cases, a vehicle is inspected for structural or frame damage, depending on the body design, after an accident or other incident. All levels of accidents from minor to severe can cause structural / frame damage and in most cases it can be repaired. Having a structural inspection before purchase is recommended.
When a vehicle was damaged after an accident or incident it undergoes repairs from its structural or frame designs.
Suspect Miles — The state or other authorized officials have identified that the vehicle’s mileage is suspect due to odometer tampering or other incidents.
A vehicles mileage is susceptible to a tampered odometer.
Taxi Use — The vehicle is or was used as a taxi.
Vehicle was utilized as Taxi.
Taxi — Vehicle was registered as a taxi or “for hire” vehicle.
“For hire” registered vehicle that was use as taxi.
Theft Insurance Claim — An insurance claim was filed because the vehicle was stolen.
Insurance claimed for stolen vehicles.
Theft Recovered — The vehicle was previously reported as stolen and has been recovered.
A stolen vehicle was reported and reclaimed.
Theft — The vehicle was stolen from its legal owner.
A vehicle was stolen form it’s legal owner.
Title Issued — A state issues a title to provide a vehicle owner with proof of ownership. Each title has a unique number. Each title or registration record on a CARFAX report does not necessarily indicate a change in ownership. In Canada, a registration and bill of sale are used as proof of ownership.
Title issued to provide the vehicle owner the proof of ownership.
Title Washing — Title Washing is the process through which a vehicle’s title is altered to conceal information that would normally be included. This can be accomplished by either physically altering printed documents or reapplying for a title without disclosing its prior history. Since the CARFAX database retains information about branded titles from all 50 states and the Canadian provinces, the CARFAX Report may help uncover potential title washing.
A vehicles title is altered to conceal information such as physically altering printed documents or reapplying for a title without disclosing its prior history.
Title — The vehicle had a title event reported by the state DMV.
Registered vehicles reported by the state DMV.
Total Loss Vehicle — An insurance or fleet company declares a vehicle a total loss when a claim exceeds ~ 75% of its pre-damage value or if the vehicle is stolen and not recovered. This damage threshold varies by company. These companies typically take possession and obtain the title. Not all total loss vehicles result in a DMV-reported branded title. This may occur when an insurance company’s definition of a total loss is different than the state DMV’s definition for a branded title or when the owner of the vehicle is a self-insured company, like a fleet or rental company.
When a vehicles total costs of damaged exceeds 75% of its pre-damaged value or if it was stolen.
U.S. Privacy Laws — The U.S. Driver’s Privacy Protection Act (DPPA) of 1994, among other laws, restricts the use of personal information such as name and address, to specific purposes. It has therefore always been CARFAX’s policy to focus its reporting on vehicles, not people.
This is a Restriction to use of personal information such as name, address that is use to specific purposes.
Unrebuildable — The vehicle is not repairable.
An irreplaceable vehicle.
Verified Odometer Rollback — When an odometer rollback is reported to and verified by a state or province law enforcement agency.
The state or province law enforcement agency verified the odometer rollback.
Vin- Vehicle Indentifing Number.
Water Damage — Any vehicle Title issued to an insurance company due to payment of a claim for flood damage sustained. If issued to a licensed rebuilder, who possesses or acquires a vehicle that is designated as, or for which evidence or information of a “flood vehicle” has been provided, the vehicle is considered a salvage vehicle and designated on an Application for Salvage Certificate in an insurance company or licensee’s name.